How do I monitor the computer's CPU, memory, and disk usage in Java?

188

I would like to monitor the following system information in Java:

  • Current CPU usage** (percent)
  • Available memory* (free/total)
  • Available disk space (free/total)

    *Note that I mean overall memory available to the whole system, not just the JVM.

I'm looking for a cross-platform solution (Linux, Mac, and Windows) that doesn't rely on my own code calling external programs or using JNI. Although these are viable options, I would prefer not to maintain OS-specific code myself if someone already has a better solution.

If there's a free library out there that does this in a reliable, cross-platform manner, that would be great (even if it makes external calls or uses native code itself).

Any suggestions are much appreciated.

To clarify, I would like to get the current CPU usage for the whole system, not just the Java process(es).

The SIGAR API provides all the functionality I'm looking for in one package, so it's the best answer to my question so far. However, due it being licensed under the GPL, I cannot use it for my original purpose (a closed source, commercial product). It's possible that Hyperic may license SIGAR for commercial use, but I haven't looked into it. For my GPL projects, I will definitely consider SIGAR in the future.

For my current needs, I'm leaning towards the following:

  • For CPU usage, OperatingSystemMXBean.getSystemLoadAverage() / OperatingSystemMXBean.getAvailableProcessors() (load average per cpu)
  • For memory, OperatingSystemMXBean.getTotalPhysicalMemorySize() and OperatingSystemMXBean.getFreePhysicalMemorySize()
  • For disk space, File.getTotalSpace() and File.getUsableSpace()

Limitations:

The getSystemLoadAverage() and disk space querying methods are only available under Java 6. Also, some JMX functionality may not be available to all platforms (i.e. it's been reported that getSystemLoadAverage() returns -1 on Windows).

Although originally licensed under GPL, it has been changed to Apache 2.0, which can generally be used for closed source, commercial products.

This question is tagged with java memory cross-platform cpu diskspace

~ Asked on 2008-09-06 01:44:06

11 Answers


67

Along the lines of what I mentioned in this post. I recommend you use the SIGAR API. I use the SIGAR API in one of my own applications and it is great. You'll find it is stable, well supported, and full of useful examples. It is open-source with a GPL 2 Apache 2.0 license. Check it out. I have a feeling it will meet your needs.

Using Java and the Sigar API you can get Memory, CPU, Disk, Load-Average, Network Interface info and metrics, Process Table information, Route info, etc.

~ Answered on 2008-09-06 06:31:29


57

The following supposedly gets you CPU and RAM. See ManagementFactory for more details.

import java.lang.management.ManagementFactory;
import java.lang.management.OperatingSystemMXBean;
import java.lang.reflect.Method;
import java.lang.reflect.Modifier;

private static void printUsage() {
  OperatingSystemMXBean operatingSystemMXBean = ManagementFactory.getOperatingSystemMXBean();
  for (Method method : operatingSystemMXBean.getClass().getDeclaredMethods()) {
    method.setAccessible(true);
    if (method.getName().startsWith("get")
        && Modifier.isPublic(method.getModifiers())) {
            Object value;
        try {
            value = method.invoke(operatingSystemMXBean);
        } catch (Exception e) {
            value = e;
        } // try
        System.out.println(method.getName() + " = " + value);
    } // if
  } // for
}

~ Answered on 2008-09-06 02:23:07


41

In JDK 1.7, you can get system CPU and memory usage via com.sun.management.OperatingSystemMXBean. This is different than java.lang.management.OperatingSystemMXBean.

long    getCommittedVirtualMemorySize()
Returns the amount of virtual memory that is guaranteed to be available to the running process in bytes, or -1 if this operation is not supported.

long    getFreePhysicalMemorySize()
Returns the amount of free physical memory in bytes.

long    getFreeSwapSpaceSize()
Returns the amount of free swap space in bytes.

double  getProcessCpuLoad()
Returns the "recent cpu usage" for the Java Virtual Machine process.

long    getProcessCpuTime()
Returns the CPU time used by the process on which the Java virtual machine is running in nanoseconds.

double  getSystemCpuLoad()
Returns the "recent cpu usage" for the whole system.

long    getTotalPhysicalMemorySize()
Returns the total amount of physical memory in bytes.

long    getTotalSwapSpaceSize()
Returns the total amount of swap space in bytes.

~ Answered on 2012-10-23 15:36:10


26

This works for me perfectly without any external API, just native Java hidden feature :)

import com.sun.management.OperatingSystemMXBean;
...
OperatingSystemMXBean osBean = ManagementFactory.getPlatformMXBean(
                OperatingSystemMXBean.class);
// What % CPU load this current JVM is taking, from 0.0-1.0
System.out.println(osBean.getProcessCpuLoad());

// What % load the overall system is at, from 0.0-1.0
System.out.println(osBean.getSystemCpuLoad());

~ Answered on 2014-12-03 21:30:59


16

Have a look at this very detailled article: http://nadeausoftware.com/articles/2008/03/java_tip_how_get_cpu_and_user_time_benchmarking#UsingaSuninternalclasstogetJVMCPUtime

To get the percentage of CPU used, all you need is some simple maths:

MBeanServerConnection mbsc = ManagementFactory.getPlatformMBeanServer();

OperatingSystemMXBean osMBean = ManagementFactory.newPlatformMXBeanProxy(
mbsc, ManagementFactory.OPERATING_SYSTEM_MXBEAN_NAME, OperatingSystemMXBean.class);

long nanoBefore = System.nanoTime();
long cpuBefore = osMBean.getProcessCpuTime();

// Call an expensive task, or sleep if you are monitoring a remote process

long cpuAfter = osMBean.getProcessCpuTime();
long nanoAfter = System.nanoTime();

long percent;
if (nanoAfter > nanoBefore)
 percent = ((cpuAfter-cpuBefore)*100L)/
   (nanoAfter-nanoBefore);
else percent = 0;

System.out.println("Cpu usage: "+percent+"%");

Note: You must import com.sun.management.OperatingSystemMXBean and not java.lang.management.OperatingSystemMXBean.

~ Answered on 2010-06-22 18:04:17


8

For disk space, if you have Java 6, you can use the getTotalSpace and getFreeSpace methods on File. If you're not on Java 6, I believe you can use Apache Commons IO to get some of the way there.

I don't know of any cross platform way to get CPU usage or Memory usage I'm afraid.

~ Answered on 2008-09-06 02:10:08


7

The accepted answer in 2008 recommended SIGAR. However, as a comment from 2014 (@Alvaro) says:

Be careful when using Sigar, there are problems on x64 machines... Sigar 1.6.4 is crashing: EXCEPTION_ACCESS_VIOLATION and it seems the library doesn't get updated since 2010

My recommendation is to use https://github.com/oshi/oshi

Or the answer mentioned above.

~ Answered on 2019-05-15 06:33:05


6

A lot of this is already available via JMX. With Java 5, JMX is built-in and they include a JMX console viewer with the JDK.

You can use JMX to monitor manually, or invoke JMX commands from Java if you need this information in your own run-time.

~ Answered on 2008-09-07 03:51:04


5

/* YOU CAN TRY THIS TOO */

import java.io.File;
 import java.lang.management.ManagementFactory;
// import java.lang.management.OperatingSystemMXBean;
 import java.lang.reflect.Method;
 import java.lang.reflect.Modifier;
 import java.lang.management.RuntimeMXBean;
 import java.io.*;
 import java.net.*;
 import java.util.*;
 import java.io.LineNumberReader;
 import java.lang.management.ManagementFactory;
import com.sun.management.OperatingSystemMXBean;
import java.lang.management.ManagementFactory;
import java.util.Random;



 public class Pragati
 {

     public static void printUsage(Runtime runtime)
     {
     long total, free, used;
     int mb = 1024*1024;

     total = runtime.totalMemory();
     free = runtime.freeMemory();
     used = total - free;
     System.out.println("\nTotal Memory: " + total / mb + "MB");
     System.out.println(" Memory Used: " + used / mb + "MB");
     System.out.println(" Memory Free: " + free / mb + "MB");
     System.out.println("Percent Used: " + ((double)used/(double)total)*100 + "%");
     System.out.println("Percent Free: " + ((double)free/(double)total)*100 + "%");
    }
    public static void log(Object message)
         {
            System.out.println(message);
         }

        public static int calcCPU(long cpuStartTime, long elapsedStartTime, int cpuCount)
        {
             long end = System.nanoTime();
             long totalAvailCPUTime = cpuCount * (end-elapsedStartTime);
             long totalUsedCPUTime = ManagementFactory.getThreadMXBean().getCurrentThreadCpuTime()-cpuStartTime;
             //log("Total CPU Time:" + totalUsedCPUTime + " ns.");
             //log("Total Avail CPU Time:" + totalAvailCPUTime + " ns.");
             float per = ((float)totalUsedCPUTime*100)/(float)totalAvailCPUTime;
             log( per);
             return (int)per;
        }

        static boolean isPrime(int n)
        {
     // 2 is the smallest prime
            if (n <= 2)
            {
                return n == 2;
            }
     // even numbers other than 2 are not prime
            if (n % 2 == 0)
            {
                return false;
            }
     // check odd divisors from 3
     // to the square root of n
         for (int i = 3, end = (int)Math.sqrt(n); i <= end; i += 2)
         {
            if (n % i == 0)
         {
         return false;
        }
        }
 return true;
}
    public static void main(String [] args)
    {
            int mb = 1024*1024;
            int gb = 1024*1024*1024;
             /* PHYSICAL MEMORY USAGE */
             System.out.println("\n**** Sizes in Mega Bytes ****\n");
            com.sun.management.OperatingSystemMXBean operatingSystemMXBean = (com.sun.management.OperatingSystemMXBean)ManagementFactory.getOperatingSystemMXBean();
            //RuntimeMXBean runtimeMXBean = ManagementFactory.getRuntimeMXBean();
            //operatingSystemMXBean = (com.sun.management.OperatingSystemMXBean) ManagementFactory.getOperatingSystemMXBean();
            com.sun.management.OperatingSystemMXBean os = (com.sun.management.OperatingSystemMXBean)
            java.lang.management.ManagementFactory.getOperatingSystemMXBean();
            long physicalMemorySize = os.getTotalPhysicalMemorySize();
            System.out.println("PHYSICAL MEMORY DETAILS \n");
            System.out.println("total physical memory : " + physicalMemorySize / mb + "MB ");
            long physicalfreeMemorySize = os.getFreePhysicalMemorySize();
            System.out.println("total free physical memory : " + physicalfreeMemorySize / mb + "MB");
            /* DISC SPACE DETAILS */
            File diskPartition = new File("C:");
            File diskPartition1 = new File("D:");
            File diskPartition2 = new File("E:");
            long totalCapacity = diskPartition.getTotalSpace() / gb;
            long totalCapacity1 = diskPartition1.getTotalSpace() / gb;
            double freePartitionSpace = diskPartition.getFreeSpace() / gb;
            double freePartitionSpace1 = diskPartition1.getFreeSpace() / gb;
            double freePartitionSpace2 = diskPartition2.getFreeSpace() / gb;
            double usablePatitionSpace = diskPartition.getUsableSpace() / gb;
            System.out.println("\n**** Sizes in Giga Bytes ****\n");
            System.out.println("DISC SPACE DETAILS \n");
            //System.out.println("Total C partition size : " + totalCapacity + "GB");
            //System.out.println("Usable Space : " + usablePatitionSpace + "GB");
            System.out.println("Free Space in drive C: : " + freePartitionSpace + "GB");
            System.out.println("Free Space in drive D:  : " + freePartitionSpace1 + "GB");
            System.out.println("Free Space in drive E: " + freePartitionSpace2 + "GB");
            if(freePartitionSpace <= totalCapacity%10 || freePartitionSpace1 <= totalCapacity1%10)
            {
                System.out.println(" !!!alert!!!!");
            }
            else
                System.out.println("no alert");

            Runtime runtime;
            byte[] bytes;
            System.out.println("\n \n**MEMORY DETAILS  ** \n");
            // Print initial memory usage.
            runtime = Runtime.getRuntime();
            printUsage(runtime);

            // Allocate a 1 Megabyte and print memory usage
            bytes = new byte[1024*1024];
            printUsage(runtime);

            bytes = null;
            // Invoke garbage collector to reclaim the allocated memory.
            runtime.gc();

            // Wait 5 seconds to give garbage collector a chance to run
            try {
            Thread.sleep(5000);
            } catch(InterruptedException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
            return;
            }

            // Total memory will probably be the same as the second printUsage call,
            // but the free memory should be about 1 Megabyte larger if garbage
            // collection kicked in.
            printUsage(runtime);
            for(int i = 0; i < 30; i++)
                     {
                         long start = System.nanoTime();
                        // log(start);
                        //number of available processors;
                         int cpuCount = ManagementFactory.getOperatingSystemMXBean().getAvailableProcessors();
                         Random random = new Random(start);
                         int seed = Math.abs(random.nextInt());
                         log("\n \n CPU USAGE DETAILS \n\n");
                         log("Starting Test with " + cpuCount + " CPUs and random number:" + seed);
                         int primes = 10000;
                         //
                         long startCPUTime = ManagementFactory.getThreadMXBean().getCurrentThreadCpuTime();
                         start = System.nanoTime();
                         while(primes != 0)
                         {
                            if(isPrime(seed))
                            {
                                primes--;
                            }
                            seed++;

                        }
                         float cpuPercent = calcCPU(startCPUTime, start, cpuCount);
                         log("CPU USAGE : " + cpuPercent + " % ");


                         try
                         {
                             Thread.sleep(1000);
                         }
                         catch (InterruptedException e) {}
        }

            try
            {
                Thread.sleep(500);
            }`enter code here`
            catch (Exception ignored) { }
        }
    }

~ Answered on 2014-02-14 06:48:57


4

The following code is Linux (maybe Unix) only, but it works in a real project.

    private double getAverageValueByLinux() throws InterruptedException {
    try {

        long delay = 50;
        List<Double> listValues = new ArrayList<Double>();
        for (int i = 0; i < 100; i++) {
            long cput1 = getCpuT();
            Thread.sleep(delay);
            long cput2 = getCpuT();
            double cpuproc = (1000d * (cput2 - cput1)) / (double) delay;
            listValues.add(cpuproc);
        }
        listValues.remove(0);
        listValues.remove(listValues.size() - 1);
        double sum = 0.0;
        for (Double double1 : listValues) {
            sum += double1;
        }
        return sum / listValues.size();
    } catch (Exception e) {
        e.printStackTrace();
        return 0;
    }

}

private long getCpuT throws FileNotFoundException, IOException {
    BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader(new FileReader("/proc/stat"));
    String line = reader.readLine();
    Pattern pattern = Pattern.compile("\\D+(\\d+)\\D+(\\d+)\\D+(\\d+)\\D+(\\d+)")
    Matcher m = pattern.matcher(line);

    long cpuUser = 0;
    long cpuSystem = 0;
    if (m.find()) {
        cpuUser = Long.parseLong(m.group(1));
        cpuSystem = Long.parseLong(m.group(3));
    }
    return cpuUser + cpuSystem;
}

~ Answered on 2009-05-07 15:04:44


3

Make a batch file "Pc.bat" as, typeperf -sc 1 "\mukit\processor(_Total)\%% Processor Time"

You can use the class MProcess,

/*
 *Md. Mukit Hasan
 *CSE-JU,35
 **/
import java.io.*;

public class MProcessor {

public MProcessor() { String s; try { Process ps = Runtime.getRuntime().exec("Pc.bat"); BufferedReader br = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(ps.getInputStream())); while((s = br.readLine()) != null) { System.out.println(s); } } catch( Exception ex ) { System.out.println(ex.toString()); } }

}

Then after some string manipulation, you get the CPU use. You can use the same process for other tasks.

--Mukit Hasan

~ Answered on 2010-05-15 17:32:33


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